Wednesday, September 25, 2019

CH -- 曼利奥·迪努希 -- 《孙子兵法》-- 香港,《南京条约》又回来了

THE ART OF WAR
《孙子兵法》
Hong Kong, the Treaty of Nanjing Returns
香港,《南京条约》又回来了
by Manlio Dinucci
曼利奥·迪努希

Clearly, some young people in Hong Kong have adopted British culture - after the handover to China of their special province. They do not know the history of their country and what they owe to the Peoples’ Republic of China. For their great grandparents, London had brought only misery and desolation, causing the collapse of the Middle Kingdom.
很明显,香港的一些年轻人在香港回归中国后,采用了英国文化。他们不知道自己国家的历史,也不知道自己欠中华人民共和国什么。对他们的曾祖父母来说,伦敦只带来了苦难和荒凉,导致了中央王朝的崩溃。

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The "Opium Wars" represent the paradigm of British colonialism:London did not seek to dominate the Chinese population politically, but exclusively to exploit it economically.
To impose drug use, Her Most Gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria, waged two wars that caused several million deaths.
“鸦片战争”代表了英国殖民主义的范式:伦敦没有试图在政治上主导中国人口,但完全是为了在经济上利用它。为了强制中国吸毒,维多利亚女王,发动了两场战争,造成数百万人死亡。

Hundreds of young Chinese, in front of the British Consulate in Hong Kong, sing the God Save the Queen and shout "Great Britain Saves Hong Kong", a rally call in London by 130 parliamentarians who ask that British citizenship be given to residents of the former colony. In this way, Britain is emerging in world public opinion, particularly among young people, as a guarantor of legality and human rights. To do this, History is erased.
数百名年轻的中国人,在英国驻香港领事馆前,高唱《上帝拯救女王》并高呼“英国拯救香港”,130位议员在伦敦集会呼吁英国公民获得前殖民地居民的公民身份。这样,英国在世界舆论中,特别是在年轻人中,成为合法性和人权的保障者。为此,历史被抹去。
It is therefore necessary, before any other consideration, to know the historical episodes which, in the first half of the 19th century, brought the Chinese territory of Hong Kong under British rule.
因此,在任何其考虑之前,有必要了解在十九世纪上半叶,香港领土被英国统治的历史事件。
To penetrate China, then ruled by the Qing dynasty, Britain resorted to the distribution of opium, which it shipped by sea from India where it held the monopoly. The drug market spread rapidly in the country, causing serious economic, physical, moral and social damage that provoked the reaction of the Chinese authorities. But when they confiscated stored opium in Canton and burned it, the British troops occupied this city and other coastal cities with the first Opium War, forcing China to sign the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842.
为了渗透当时由清朝统治的中国,英国采取了分发鸦片的办法,将鸦片从其垄断的印度海运过来。毒品市场在中国迅速蔓延,造成严重的经济、身体、道德和社会损害,引起中国当局的反应。但是,当他们在广州没收储存的鸦片并将其焚烧时,英国军队在第一次鸦片战争中占领了香港和其他沿海城市,迫使中国在1842年签署了《南京条约》 
In Article 3 it states: "As it is obviously necessary and desirable for British subjects to have ports for their ships and their stores, China will forever cede the island of Hong Kong to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain. and her heirs ". In Article 6 the Treaty stipulates: "Since Her Britannic Majesty’s Government was obliged to send an expeditionary force to obtain compensation for the damage caused by the Chinese authorities’ violent and unjust procedure, China agrees to pay to Her British Majesty the sum of $ 12 million for expenses incurred.
《南京条约》第3条中指出:“显然,英国臣民必须为船只和他们的商店拥有港口,中国将永远把香港岛割让给英国女王陛下以及她的继承人”。条约第六条规定:“由于英国女王陛下政府有义务派遣远征军对中国当局的暴力和不公正程序造成的损害进行赔偿,中国同意向英国女王陛下支付1200万美元的费用。
The Nanking Treaty is the first of the unequal treaties by which the European powers (Great Britain, Germany, France, Belgium, Austria and Italy), Tsarist Russia, Japan and the United States secured in China, by the force of arms, a series of privileges: the cession of Hong Kong to Great Britain in 1843, the sharp reduction of taxes on foreign goods (at a time when European governments were erecting customs barriers to protect their industries), the opening of the main ports to foreign vessels and the right to have urban areas under their own administration ("concessions") exempted from Chinese authority.
《南京条约》是欧洲列强(大不列颠、德国、法国、比利时、奥地利和意大利)、沙皇俄罗斯、日本和美国通过武力在中国获得的一系列不平等条约中的第一个特权:1843的香港向大不列颠的割让,对进口外国商品的大幅减税。(当时欧洲各国政府正在设置关税壁垒以保护本国工业)、向外国船只开放主要港口以及在其管理下的城市地区(“特许”)免受中国当局管辖的权利。
In 1898 Great Britain annexed the Kowloon Peninsula in Hong Kong and the so-called News Territories, conceded by China to be "rented" for 99 years.
1898,英国吞并了香港的九龙半岛和所谓的新界,中国承认“出租”了99年。
The widespread dissatisfaction with these impositions exploded towards the end of the 19th century in a popular revolt - that of the Boxers - against which intervened an international expeditionary force of 16,000 men under British command, in which Italy also participated (and France, NdT).
19世纪末,人们对这些强征的普遍不满爆发了一场普遍的起义——义和团起义——在英国的指挥下成立了一支由16000人组成的国际远征军,意大利(和法国)也参加了镇压起义。
Landed in Tianjin (T’ien Tsin) in August 1900, the force sacked Beijing and other cities, destroying many villages and massacring the population. Later, Britain took control of Tibet in 1903, while Czarist Russia and Japan shared Manchuria in 1907.
1900年8月登陆天津,军队洗劫了北京和其他城市,摧毁了许多村庄,屠杀了人口。后来,英国在1903年控制了西藏,沙皇俄国和日本在1907年共享满洲。
In China, reduced to a colonial or semi-colonial state, Hong Kong became the main door of exchange based on the plunder of resources and slave labour exploitation of the population. A huge mass of Chinese are forced to emigrate mainly to the United States, Australia and South-East Asia, where they are subjected to similar conditions of exploitation and discrimination.
在中国沦为殖民地或半殖民地的国家,香港成为以资源掠夺和奴隶劳动剥削为基础的人口交换的主要门户。大量中国人被迫移民到美国、澳大利亚和东南亚,在那里他们受到类似的剥削和歧视。
A question arises spontaneously: Which history books are young people who ask Britain to "save Hong Kong" studying?
一个问题自然而然地出现了:要求英国“拯救香港”的年轻人学习是哪些历史书?

曼利奥·迪努希

Translation 
翻译: Pearl

Source
《宣言报》第二版意大利



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